The ChurchinHistory Information Centre
APPARITIONS OF OUR LADY IN THEIR HISTORICAL CONTEXT
A NIGHT ILLUMINATED
In a previous section reference was made to an aurora in 1938, which Lucia considered to be the sign of impending war spoken of by Mary in 1917. This needs to be considered in greater detail.
On the 5th November 1937, Hitler called his chief Commanders to a four-hour meeting. They were Blomberg who was the Minister of War, Fritsch the commander of the army, Reader of the navy and Goering of the airforce. Also present was the Foreign Minister Neurath and minutes secretary, Hossbach. Hitler announced that he intended to launch a war in the east by 1943. Goering and Reader acquiesced but the others protested and tried to dissuade Hitler during the following weeks ((WS 307-309)). Neurath could be replaced easily, but the War Minister and the army Commander presented Hitler with a problem. As head of state Hitler was officially in command of the military, but the armed forces still possessed some independence and the soldiers were loyal to their officers and generals. If provoked, the army still held the power to overthrow him ((WS 320)).
When on the 12th January 1938, Blomberg married his secretary it came to Hitler's ears that she had been a prostitute. At the same time the Nazi police forged evidence to show that Fritsch was being blackmailed due to alleged homosexual behaviour. Hitler used these pieces of information to remove these men from office without provoking objections from other generals. With their removal Hitler became, in effect, the sole commander of all German armed forces. He stated this at a cabinet meeting on February 4th and, in a decree of the same date, by announcing: "From now on I take over personally the command of the whole armed forces". ((WS 318)). Hitler used his new authority to dismiss or demote sixty generals and remove Neurath from office. He replaced them with men willing to follow him into war. Hitler now had under his immediate and personal command a war machine with which to conquer Europe.
It was during the evening of January 25th that Blomberg was forced to resign. Refering to Blomberg's secretary, Colonel Jodl wrote in his diary: 'What influence a woman, even without realizing it, can exert on the history of a century and thereby on the world, one has the feeling of living in a fateful hour for the German people.' ((WS 311)). Fritsch was suspended from duties during the evening of the 26th.
It was during these same two nights of the 25th and 26th, that the sky was illuminated all over Europe by an extraordinary aurora. These are caused by sunspots and occur frequently above the artic circle. But the Aurora of the 25th and 26th of January 1938 was very exceptional. Greenwich Observatory began keeping records in 1875. In January it reported the largest sunspot ever recorded. ((ILN 29th Jan. 1938)). The subsequent aurora was reported in the south of England where seldom seen. In Austria the sky was so lit-up and vivid that fire brigades were called out to deal with supposed fires ((26th Jan. 1938)).
The Times on the following day reported that the Aurora had been seen all over Hungary, where the red glare had awakened people and animals. The Swiss fire brigades were kept on standby as it was thought that there were fires in Alsatian villages.
It was seen in Munich and other German towns. Cafes in Vienna emptied. At Ostend fishermen didn't go out to sea. Due to fog it was not observed over Paris, but was seen in the rest of France. In Portugal, where an aurora had not been sighted for 50 years, it lasted for two and a half hours. In Gibraltar It was viewed for the first time in living memory. It was observed throughout Italy, even as far south as Sicily.
At Lerwick In Scotland it was the most memorable since 1905 and lasted twelve hours. It was particularly red and wireless services were interrupted. Railway signs in Scotland were put out of action. ((TL 27th Jan. 1938)).
Lucia wrote to her bishop saying 'this great unknown light' was the sign of impending war, as foretold on the 13th July 1917. ((JB 177)).
Two months later, Hitler used his new power to invade Austria. In September 1939 Hitler invaded Poland, which resisted, and within a few days Britain and France went to her aid. So September 1939 is normally accepted as the month when the world war started. It has been pointed out, that Our Lady spoke of war breaking out during the reign of Plus XI, yet he was dead by September 1939. But Hitler's conquests started with Austria although, to save lives, her army did not resist. The Allies officially recognised that Austria was Hitler's first victim and in need of liberation. ((EB 138 and RH 7-10)). At the time of the invasion of Austria, Pius XI was still alive.
In 1947 Pope Pius XII ruled that a feast of the Immaculate Heart of Mary was to be held throughout the Church each year on August 22nd, He also proclaimed a Holy Year commencing on the 24th December 1949, ((FJ 11)). During that year, on November 1st 1950, he defined the dogma of the Assumption of Mary into heaven ((NP 246)). Catholics believed the tradition that Mary's body had not decayed but had been taken (i.e. assumed) into heaven. Pius XII was defining this belief as part of the Catholic Faith.
Just prior to the public definition in St. Peter's Rome, Pius saw a sign, which was repeated on November 1st and on the octave of the feast. The incident was later described by his housekeeper:
"On 30th October 1950 when the Pope was returning home from his walk In the Vatican gardens, Pius XII saw a strange spectacle: the sun which was still quite high in the sky, appeared as a dark, pale yellow ball surrounded by a bright halo. A soft, light coloured cloud floated in front of it. The ball moved outwards slightly, either revolving on its axis or leaving its path to the right and left and returning to it again". ((PL 136)).
The Pope told several people and made enquiries to see if the Vatican Observatory had detected any unusual activity. The Observatory replied that it had not seen anything exceptional. ((PL 136)).
Cardinal Tedeschini announced the incident to the one million pilgrims at Fatima on the 13th October 1951 ((JAP 151)), and this was reported in the L'Osservatore Romano of 17th November 1951 ((FJ 11)).
In 1981 an attempt was made to assassinate Pope John Paul II. This took place on May 13th, anniversary of the first apparition at Fatima. Afterwards, his assassin asked the Pope "I know that my aim was true, and I know that the bullet was very powerful and mortal... so why didn't you die?" The Pope replied: "One hand fired the shot, another guided it." ((TTR 7)). One report said that the Pope had made a gesture towards a little girl wearing a picture of Our Lady of Fatima, and that this slight movement had saved him. ((CDE 638 Dec 1990)).
The Pope accepted that Our Lady of Fatima had intervened ((TTR 3, 4)). Due to his wound the Pope was forced to cancel his world wide preaching tours and to stay in bed. While resting, he called for all the documents regarding Fatima to be brought to him ((TTR 6)). After careful study, he told bishop Hnilica that only Our Lady could overcome Communism. He arranged for a chapel to be built in a Polish forest close to the Russian border, and to have placed in it a statue facing the Soviet Union. The statue was of Our Lady of Fatima, but with the addition of a crown ((TTR 10-12)).
On May 13th 1982 the Pope gave thanks at Fatima for his survival, and publicly consecrated the world to the Immaculate Heart of Mary. But Lucia pointed out that Our Lady had asked for such a consecration to be carried out in union with the world's bishops (i.e. collegially). So on December 8th 1983 the Pope sent a letter to all the Catholic and Orthodox bishops asking them to join him on March 25th 1984 (feast of the Annunciation) In an act of consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary. For the ceremony, Our Lady's pilgrim statue was brought from Fatima and placed In front of St. Peter's in Rome. Lucia said that although some bishops may not have taken part, there had been general support so the request for a collegial consecration had been carried out. ((TTR 17-18)).
In March 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev was elected Communist Party Secretary, the most powerful position in the Soviet system ((KRWE 33538)). After 68 years of apparently invincible and permanent Communism, and within a year of the consecration, the political move occurred which would bring Communist power to an end. The Pope next designated the fourteen months from the end of Pentecost 1987 (6th June) till the feast of the Assumption (15th August 1988), as a 'Marian Year'.
THE SPELL OF MARXISM IS BROKEN
On 28th April 1988, during the Marian Year, Gorbachev announced that the Soviet Union would grant religious freedom. On December the 1st, Gorbachev and the Pope met. Diplomatic relations were established with the Vatican on the 15th March 1990. ((TTR 36)). On October 1st a Bill was passed to permit religious freedom, end atheist education in schools and permit church established schools. ((KRWE 37788)). It was also announced that there would be holidays on major religious festivals. The Pope became convinced that the collapse of state atheism in the Soviet Union was due to a miracle worked through Our Lady of Fatima. ((TTR 34-38)).
The Cathedral of the Assumption in the Kremlin was returned to the Orthodox Church, and the first religious ceremony since 1917 was held In St. Basil's Cathedral on the 13th of October 1990. This was the anniversary of the great Fatima miracle. The Orthodox Church was not fostering devotion to Our Lady of Fatima, so the date had not been chosen with this intended significance. Both days fell on a Saturday. This commemoratory service was held 'to celebrate Mary's intercession to alleviate human suffering.' ((TL Oct. 15th, 1990)). At Banneux, Mary had used the words "I have come to alleviate human suffering." ((DW 12)).
On 19th August 1991 a coup was attempted to re-establish Communism. ((KRWE 38368)). This day was the anniversary of August 19th 1917, when Our Lady appeared at Fatima out of sequence. In the West, TV stations showed Boris Yeltsin, on a tank outside parliament. He was calling the citizens of Moscow to come in there thousands to defend the building. But few in Moscow heard his call because supporters of the coup had seized all the radio and TV transmitters. ((KRWE 38369)).
The cult of Our Lady of Fatima had made Catholics very conscious of the need to work for the freeing of Russia from Communism. So, as soon as the oppressive laws were eased, a Catholic radio and TV network based in Belgium sent a transmitter to Moscow. While waiting for a licence, it was stored in a warehouse, so unknown to the Communists. The gift of the transmitter was an ecumenical venture, so one of Yeltsin's supporters in Parliament, an Orthodox Christian, was aware of its existence. It was offered to Yeltsin, and his troops sped to the warehouse and brought it to parliament hidden beneath lettuces and tomatoes. ((ACN Jan 1992, supplement)). Yeltsin used this transmitter, established on the roof of Parliament, to rally the people of Moscow and thereby defeat the Communist coup. ((KRWE 38369)).
From its inception this Catholic radio and TV network had been dedicated to Our Lady of Fatima. ((CRTN 22nd September 1993)).
In 1944, the Feast of the Immaculate Heart of Mary was moved to August 22nd. But in 1971, this feast was transferred to the first Saturday following the Feast of the Sacred Heart of Jesus. ((TTR 52)). The 22nd of August became the Feast of the Queenship of Mary. ((TTR 52-3)). The small crowned statue of Our Lady of Fatima on the Polish border had symbolised this double meaning. By tradition the evening prior to a feast day is considered as part of the feast and called its 'vigil'. During the vigil of this feast the coup collapsed. So next morning, feast of the Queenship of Mary, Russia and its associated states awoke as countries finally free of state atheism.
Yeltsin was thankful for the transmitter's assistance, and permitted it to remain for a time on the roof of Parliament broadcasting Catholic and Orthodox religious programmes. ((ACN January 1992 supplement)). The station became known as 'Radio Blagovest' (An invitation to prayer). During the following weeks friendly relations developed between Mr. Correa, managing director of the Catholic network and the director of Russian television. Mr Correa had become dedicated to the radio apostolate due to his interest in Fatima. When asked to suggest programmes about the West, he proposed this topic. This resulted in the transmission on Russian TV, and 300 radio stations, of a 75 minute live programme from the 13th October 1991 celebrations direct from Fatima. It concluded with discussions involving a live audience in a Moscow studio ((TTR 76-80)). On the same day the old capital city of Leningrad reverted to its Christian name of St. Petersburg ((TTR 56)).
The programme was repeated in the non-Moslem republics during the evening. By public demand, it was repeated again on November 7th by over 150 Russian TV stations, 180 Polish stations and by 380 cable services in the USA. This day was the anniversary of the Communist seizure of power in 1917, according to the Gregorian Calendar ((TTR 79)).
On December 8th, the leaders of Russia, the Ukraine and Byelorussia, officially and legally declared the Soviet Union to be defunct. This day was the feast of the Immaculate Conception ((KRWE 38654)). On the day celebrated as Christ's birthday, the 25th of December 1991, the hammer and sickle flag, symbol of atheist power, was finally lowered in Moscow and on all Soviet embassies throughout the world. ((TL Dec 26th, 1991)).
THE THIRD `SECRET`
On the 26th June 2000 the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith issued the full text of what Lucia had written for the Pope in 1943 [See the chapter headed ‘Lucia`s Memoirs’, part 3]. The following is the authorized transcript of the original handwritten Portuguese version.
I write in obedience to you, my God, who command me to do so through his Excellency the Bishop of Elyria and through your Most Holy Mother and mine. After the two parts which I have already explained, at the left of Our Lady and a little above, we saw an Angel with a flaming sword in his left hand; flashing, it gave out flames that looked as though they would set the world on fire; but they died out in contact with the splendour that Our Lady radiated towards him from her right hand: pointing to the earth with his right hand, the Angel cried out in a loud voice: "Penance, Penance, Penance!" And we saw in an immense light that is God — something similar to how people appear in a mirror when they pass in front of it — a Bishop dressed in White — we had the impression that it was the Holy Father. Other Bishops, priests, men and women Religious going up a steep mountain, at the top of which there was a big cross of rough-hewn trunks as of a cork-tree with the bark; before reaching there the Holy Father passed through a big city half in ruins and half trembling with halting step, afflicted with pain and sorrow, he prayed for the souls of the corpses he met on his way; having reached the top of the mountain, on his knees at the foot of the big Cross he was killed by a group of soldiers who fired bullets and arrows at him, and in the same way there died one after another the other Bishops, Priests, men and women Religious and various lay people of different ranks and positions. Beneath the two arms of the Cross there were two Angels each with a crystal aspergilium in his hand, in which they gathered up the blood of the Martyrs and with it sprinkled the souls that were making their way to God.
In a commentary, Cardinal Ratzinger said that this was a preview of the 20th century, with its world wars and many local wars, of martyrs, suffering and persecution for the Church and unprecedented forms of cruelty. The message had emphasized the need for prayer and penance. And in this way the importance of human freedom was underlined.
Is Mary appearing at Medjugorje in Bosnia-Herzegovina? The 1991 statement by the Bishops of the former Yugoslavia, meeting at Zadar, neither accepted nor ejected the claims of the visionaries, but left the way open for a future final decision.
‘Church In History’ is neutral regarding the events and awaits a final decision from the Church. This appears to be unlikely in the near future.
However, a significant section within the Catholic Community see the events, signs and messages as a continuation and fulfilment of the events at Fatima. Millions of pilgrims travel to Medjugorje each year. So some readers may be interested in the speculations that have been made. The listing of these below does not imply ‘Church-in-History’s endorsement of their validity.
1. The events at Medjugorje commenced on June 24th 1981. This was very soon after Pope John Paul II committed himself to carrying out the collegial consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary as requested at Fatima. Medjugorje could therefore be seen as Our Lady’s response to the Pope’s commitment.
2.The word ‘Mir’ (Croatian for peace), which was seen by many in the sky, has the same root as the word ‘Iria’ (From Irene in Greek meaning ‘peace’). Our Lady appeared at ‘the Cova de Iria’ at Fatima (See page 12).
3. Fatima is named after a converted Muslim princess who established a convent there. In 778 Mirat, a Muslim General, surrendered his castle of Mirambel to Our Lady, was baptised ‘Lorus’ and reappointed as commander. The town became known as ‘Lorus’ - [Lourdes]. Bosnia-Herzegovina is the meeting place of the Catholic world to the west, the Orthodox to the east and the Muslim to the south.
4. The solar phenomena was similar to that at Fatima, although on a far less scale.
5. The words of Mary: “I am the Queen of Peace”, recalls that Pope Benedict XV honoured her liturgically with this title in his letter of 1917 (see page 11).
6. The promise of leaving: ‘a visible, beautiful, permanent and indestructible sign’, recalls Pope Benedict’s final request in his letter of 1917: “...and in the times to come remind mankind of the power of her mediation.” (See pages 11 and 39).
Pilgrims are not drawn to Medjugorje by these speculations, but by stories of the shrine being a source of great graces. The speculations are based on the acceptance that Mary is appearing at Medjugorje. Those who do not share this acceptance see them as mere coincidences. Some see Medjugorje as a distraction from Fatima.
The calls at Medjugorje are similar to those heard at Fatima, although with a post-Vatican II tone: Prayer, penance, reparation, praying the rosary, life reform. There is no mention of receiving Communion on the seven Saturdays with associated Confessions, but a call for daily Communion and frequent Confession. There is an added emphasis on Eucharistic Adoration, fasting and Scripture reading.
In order to keep a sense of proportion between the value of apparitions and the Faith of the Church, it may be useful to re-read the Introduction to this booklet.
1. In November 1915 Benedict XV permitted the invocation "Queen of Peace, pray for us" to be incorporated into the Litany. But it was not made compulsory till May 1917. ((TAB May 12th 1917)). It was during this same preparatory period that an angel was preparing the children at Fatima for the main apparitions of 1917.
2. Eugenio Pacelli was a central Catholic figure of the 20th century. As the Pope's representative negotiating with the German pro-peace Chancellor, he was at the centre of the struggle for peace in 1917. As Pope Plus XII, he had to guide the Church through the terrors of Nazism, the horrors of the Second World War and the challenge of Communism. He may have been strengthened by the knowledge that at the very moment Mary was appearing for the first time at Fatima, he was being consecrated in Rome as a bishop by Pope Benedict XV, who had called for Mary's help five days earlier. ((VMDO 115)).
3. The smuggling of radio equipment into the Russian Parliament under vegetables in 1991 recalls that the first statue of Our Lady of Fatima was made in a nearby Portuguese village. The intention was to install it in the Cova on 13th May 1920. To achieve this it had to be smuggled on a cart, under farm implements, through the army road-blocks surrounding Fatima. ((GLB 191-2)).
4. A similarity has been noticed between Pope Benedict's letter of 5th May 1917, and the themes at Fatima.
Benedict wrote of:
a. the need to turn to heaven.
Mary said At Fatima:
a. In May: "I am from heaven." ((LS 158)).
5. It has been asked why Mary demanded a collegial consecration before Communist power could be broken. Lucia has said that Jesus wished the whole Church to realise that the defeat of Communism had been due to devotion to the Immaculate Heart of Mary. This would emphasize this devotion's importance. ((JAP 160)). It may be added that when the bishops joined the Pope's cry for help in May 1917, they were acting collegially. It was therefore appropriate for Mary to require a collegial response to her recipe for peace.
6. Hitler's government in 1933 consisted of Nationalists as well as Nazis. 'The parties would meet separately to decide policy prior to a cabinet meeting. As the Nazis had a majority in the cabinet, it was their meeting that effectively decided government policy. A cabinet meeting on 14th July 1933 ((GS 60)) ordered the sterilization of Germans with hereditary diseases.
It was the first step towards the extermination camps. The Nazi meeting most likely took place on the 13th, an anniversary of the July vision of hell.
7. Sometimes it is asked how far the Fatima promises have been fulfilled. Some would point out
that Mary's promise to return was fulfilled on 10th December 1925. The world did not heed Mary's requests during
the 1930's and, after a sign in the sky; Europe did experience a terrible war, famines and persecutions. Attempts
were made to annihilate whole nations. Russia was not converted from atheism and, after the war, did spread her
errors throughout the world. These caused smaller wars and the church was persecuted in many places. The Holy Father
did eventually collegially consecrate Russia to the Immaculate Heart of Mary and soon afterwards the threat of
a nuclear war was lifted.
9. It has been widely reported that Jesuit priests living the message of Fatima were residing in the centre of Hiroshima when the atom bomb was dropped. It is said that they escaped unhurt and their house was undamaged According to an eyewitness, this is not true. ((JS 8-15)).
MARY AND HER SON
All Christians should be evangelists: mediators, or 'bridges', between Christ and those who know little about Him. For Catholics, Mary is the great evangelist: constantly working to bring people to her Son. Her mediation, especially evident at shrines with occasional miracles, creates the spiritual climate for an encounter, in the depths of a person's being, with Mary’s Son.
An underlying problem throughout Europe is what is known as Positivism. It may also be known as Empiricism or Materialism. People are dominated by the fear of believing without physical proofs based on scientific experiments on matter. Apparitions appeal directly to a person's spiritual nature, so bypass this blockage to understanding. They thereby open up the whole personality.
Apparitions are not intended to prove the truth of Christianity. They are signs that awaken or intensify the spiritual dimension of life. By providing a taste of holiness, of making a person aware of God's power and love, they are invitations to search further. The last words of Mary, recorded in the Bible when referring to her Son, are: "Do whatever He tells you". ((John 2: 5)).
THE MESSAGE OF THE APPARITIONS
This booklet has recounted apparitions in date order, placing them in their historical contexts and highlighted certain political events. But a summary is needed of the messages. The 1957 Papal Encyclical, written to celebrate the centenary of Lourdes, provides such a summary:
"In a society which was hardly aware of the evils eating away its very roots, which covered up its wretchedness and its injustices with a veil of brilliant and carefree prosperity, the Immaculate Virgin, whom sin had never touched, showed herself to an innocent girl. ...she ...uttered her urgent appeal: 'Repentance, repentance, repentance. ...You must pray to God for sinners.' ...as for the crowds who pressed around our Lord, so at Lourdes the cures of physical infirmities are at the same time acts of compassion and signs that the Son of Man has power to forgive sin.
It was the prayer of Plus XI ...'that blinded souls should receive the light of truth and justice, that those whom error has led astray should be led back to the right path, that a just liberty should everywhere be granted to the Church and an era of peace and true prosperity dawn upon all nations'.
The world to-day has many just causes for pride and for hope; but at the same time it is subject
to a terrible temptation to that materialism which ...We ...have so often denounced. It is not only the basis of
that philosophy, already condemned, that underlies the politics and economic system of a portion of mankind; it
is manifested also in that love of money which, in proportion to the large scale of modern enterprises, weighs
heavily upon the lives of so many people.
It is present in the unbridled pursuit of pleasure which parades its shamelessness and tries to seduce souls still innocent, through literature and entertainments; It reveals itself in regardlessness for our brother's welfare, in the selfishness which crushes him and the injustice which denies him his rights. In a word it is the conception of life as regulated solely in view of material prosperity and earthly satisfactions. 'My soul,' the rich man said, 'thou hast much goods laid up for many years. Take thy rest; eat, drink, make good cheer.' But God said to him: 'Thou fool, this night thy soul is required of thee.' [Luke 12: 20).
Our complicated social structure and economic pressure sometimes put a strain on men's good will and seem to paralyse it. But ...We Ourselves have often insisted, that the possibility of social and political peace is primarily a moral question, no reform can be fruitful and no agreements enduring without a change and a purification of men's hearts. To this our Lady of Lourdes calls all men in this jubilee year." ((PXII 10-15)).
A Miraculous Medal must not be treated as a lucky charm, but as a token of Mary's love for the one who is wearing it.
MAXIMIIAN KOLBE, while a Franciscan seminarian student in Rome, was inspired by a talk regarding Alphonse Ratisbonne and the Miraculous Medal. Later that year he founded 'The Crusade of Mary Immaculate' with the medal as a symbol of internal dedication to prayer, work and penance. The first meeting was held on 16th October 1917, three days after the miracle of the sun at Fatima, of which he was unaware. When Kolbe returned to his native Poland, the Crusade was so successful in encouraging vocations, that he was able to found a large Franciscan friary in 1927. The Crusade has now spread worldwide. Kolbe was murdered in Auschwitz Concentration Camp during August 1941 ((TMI 6-17)) and proclaimed a saint in 1982.
"Miracles to the Catholic are facts of history and biography, and nothing else; and they are to be regarded and dealt with as other facts; ..."
John Henry Newman ((JHN 308))
Christian prophecies are conditional. They provide a forecast of what will occur if mankind lives in a certain manner. The fulfilment of such a prophecy is not inevitable as in a pagan fatalistic prophesy. A most important element contained within a Christian prophesy is the message that mankind can, through repentance, prayer and God's assistance, change the direction of human history.
REFERENCES (Page numbers In text)
ACN ...... Mirror, published by Aid to the Church in Need.
AOA ...... Fatima Pilgrimage of Peace by April O. Armstrong,. 1955.
CCMA .... What Happened at Fatima? by C.C.Martindale, CTS, 1950.
CCMB .... Portuguese Pilgrimage by C.C.Martindale, 1948.
CCMC .... Bernadette of Lourdes by C.C.Martindale, CTS, 1970.
CDI ...... Catholic Dictionary, 1951.
CDE ...... Christian Democrat, monthly, London.
CIHICA ... James II and The Glorious Revolution (This web site).
CRTN ..... Catholic Radio and TV Network, letter to the author.
DGB ...... Nationalism In Ireland by D.G.Boyce, 1991.
DW ...... The Virgin of the Poor by Damien Walne, CTS, 1983.
EA ....... Encyclopedia Americana, 1977.
EB ....... Austria 1918-1972 by Elizabeth Barker, 1973.
EHC ...... The Bolshevik Revolution by E.H.Carr, 1950.
FJ ...... Fatima, the Great Sign by Francis Johnson.
FR ...... Our Lady of Fatima by Finbar Ryan, 1940.
GLB ...... The Finger of God is Here by G.L.Baker, 1961.
GS ...... Into That Darkness by Gitta Sereny, 1974.
HALF ..... A History of Europe by H.A.L.Fisher, 1936.
HK ...... Salazar and Modern Portugal by Hugh Kay, 1970.
HVL ..... A History of Portugal by H.V.Livermore, 1947.
ILN ...... Illustrated London News. 29th January 1938.
IP ...... Imperial Germany by Ian Porter, 1991.
JAP ...... The Sun Danced at Fatima by Joseph A. Pelletier, 1983.
JB ...... The Sun Her mantle by John Beavers, 1953.
JDM ...... The Crusade of Fatima by John De Marchl, 1964.
JHN ...... The Present Position of Catholics by John H. Newman, 1851.
JLS ...... A Short History of World War I by James L. Stokesbury, 1981.
JOS ...... Pope Plus XII by Jan Olav Smit, 1951.
JS ...... The Day the Bomb Fell by J.Slemes, CTS, 1984.
KRWE ... Keesings Record of World Events.
LA ...... John XXIII by Leone Algisi, 1963.
LFH ..... By The Queen's Command by Lawrence F. Harvey, 1953.
LS ..... Fatima in Lucia's Own Words by Lucia Santos, 1963.
ML ..... The Russian Revolution by Michael Liebman. 1970.
NP ..... Portrait of Plus XI by Nazareno Padellaro, 1956.
OLS ..... Conquest of the Miraculous Medal by Our Lady of Sion, 1955.
PH ....... A Short History of the Catholic Church by Philip Hughes, 1967.
PL ....... Ich Durfte Ihm Dienen by Pascalina Lehnert, 1983.
PXII ..... Our Lady of Lourdes by Pope Plus XII, CTS, 1957.
RH ....... The Rebirth of Austria by R. Hiscocks, 1953.
RP ...... The Russian Revolution by Richard Pipes, 1990.
TAB ..... The Tablet of London.
TB ...... Discretion and Valour by Trevor Beeson, 1974.
TL ...... The Times of London.
TMI ..... The Torch of Mary Immaculate by A.W.D., 1958.
TTR ..... Fatima, Russia & John Paul II by T.Tindal-Robertson, 1992.
VK ...... St. Margaret Mary by Vincent Kerns, 1961.
VMDO ... More about Fatima by V. Montes de Oca, 1960.
WS ....... The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich by William